12 June, 2020
Follow us on Twitter (@SafdarKhan) and Facebook! Eukaryote cells additionally have membrane-bound organelles. All of these organelles have different functions. But cells aren’t isolated little worlds. It is sensible that to stay a stable environment inside them—otherwise referred to as homeostasis—they must have some control over what goes in and out of them.
Let’s take a glance at the cell wall.You could have a course on the cell wall itself—it has amazing structure and signaling abilities. Bilayermeans two layers, so you’ve got these two layers of lipids. Some molecules haven’t any problem browsing the cell wall and directly undergo the phospholipid bilayer.
Like some gases. That’s the natural way molecules wish to move—from high to low—so once you hear someone saying its going with the gradient then that’s what they mean. And these are goodies because its helping with molecules which will be too big to cross the membrane on their own or molecules that are polar—and therefore need the assistance of a transport protein. this is often referred to as facilitated diffusion. It doesn’t require energy so it’s a kind of transport. Charged ions often require protein channels so as to undergo. Glucose needs the assistance of a transport protein to undergo. In osmosis, for water to travel at a quick rate across the membrane,it passes through protein channels called aquaporins. These are all samples of facilitated diffusion, which may be a sort of transport and moves with the concentration gradient of high to low concentration.
Now all the transport we’ve mentioned has been passive in nature, which suggests it’s going from high concentration to low concentration.But what if you would like to travel the opposite way? for instance, the cells lining your gut got to absorb glucose. But what if the concentration of glucose within the cell is above the environment? we’d like to urge the glucose in and it’s getting to need to be forced against the regular gradient flow. When the bond for the last phosphate is broken, it releases an excellent amount of energy. It’s a reasonably awesome little molecule. ATP can power transport to force those molecules to travel against their concentration gradient, and a method it can do this is really energizing the transport protein itself. one among our favorite samples of transport is that the sodium-potassium pump so that’s definitely something worth checking out! -There are other times the cell must exert energy for transport.
we’re still inactive transport for now. But let’s say a cell needs a really large molecule –let’ say an enormous polysaccharide (if you inspect our biomolecule video, that’s an outsized carbohydrate)—well you’ll need the cell wall to fuse with the molecules it’s taking in to bring it inside. this is often called Endocytosis— think endo for “in.” Often, this fusing of drugs with the cell wall will form vesicles which will be taken inside the cell. Endocytosis may be a general term, but there are literally differing types of endocytosis counting on how the cell is bringing substances inside. Amoebas for instance believe a sort of endocytosis. Pseudopods stretch out around what they need to engulf then it gets pulled into a vacuole. There are other forms too like the flamboyant receptor-mediated endocytosis—where cells are often very, very, very picky about what’s coming in because the incoming substances even have to bind to receptors to even get in. Or pinocytosis—which allows the cell to require in fluids.
So to Google to seek out out more details of the various sorts of endocytosis. Exocytosis is that the reverse direction of endocytosis, so this is often when molecules exit—think exo and exit. Exocytosis also can be wont to getrid of cell waste but it’s also really important for getting important materials out that thecell has made. need a cool example? Thinking back to those polysaccharides—did you recognize that enormous carbohydrates also are really important for creating plant cell walls? Cell walls aredifferent from cell membranes—-all cells have membranes but not all cells have a wall.But if you’re getting to make a cell membrane, you’re getting to got to get those carbohydratesthat are produced within the plant cell out of the cell to form the wall. So there’s agreat example of when you’d need exocytosis right there.
Well that’s it for the amoeba sisters andwe remind you to remain curious! Follow us on Twitter (@SafdarKhan) and Facebook! I own a pizzeria. – Oh yeah?- Yeah. – Really, where? What kind?- In Brooklyn. In Williamsburg, Brooklyn. – You from Brooklyn?- I’m from Brooklyn. am i able to do some Brooklyn accent? What does one got? let’s examine it.Come on. Hey, how you doing?
Are you lecture me? You lecture me? What’s a matter with you? Oh, man. i might have thought you aBrooklynite. Man, you bought me fooled. – How about that?- That’s great! I’m close to eat my waythrough the Bay. It’s all about produce out here. And what better thanks to eat it,then on pizza? This slice is definitelythe ny style, but it got that California thinghappening. It’s delicious.
I’m getting to visit a bunch of greatpizzerias in San Francisco, Berkeley, and even make my way toNapa for a few pizza and wine. First, I’m meeting upwith Patty Unterman, owner of Hayes Street Grill, and while San Franciscorestaurant critic. Welcome to San Francisco. It’s such a gorgeous city. you have been within the food scene herefor a few years as a writer and a restaurateur. what’s the culinary scene likehere, in San Francisco? We essentially drove culinaryculture within the country. we’ve a year-round season. and there is an entire culture offarmer’s markets that sort of farm to table thing. our greatest restaurants use thesebeautiful ingredients. Whether it is the Mill or Tartine, and every one this innovativestuff they’re doing. Our sourdough culture startedat the Gold Rush. there is a real attentionto crust here. If you bought that base that hascharacter, that has flavor, that is what a pizza is, right? Yeah, does one realize this guy,Anthony Mangieri? He’s a replacement Yorker.And he’s removed here, and opened an area calledUna Pizza Napoletana. I not only know him, i really like him. A monk of pizza.
Does one have any tips on behalf of me,any places that i want to go? and that is a true community thing.Have you seen those lines? Eighteen hundred pizzasa day on some days. – Yeah.- Unreal. It’s just life in Berkeley. – Californian.- Yeah. It’s Californian through andthrough. celebrate eating that pizza, man!
When within the Bay, you’ve got to hitCheese Board. This Berkeley institution started asa cheese shop. And over time, has expandedinto a pizzeria. They serve one vegetarianpizza each day, and are worker owned and operated. Everyone gets a slice here. Busy day today, I see. Yeah, it’s just a daily day. – Regular day here at Cheese Board?- Just a daily day. Yeah, yeah. once we do busy, it goes all theway down the corner and around. what is the most pizzasyou’ve ever sold here? i feel it had been well overeighteen hundred pizzas. Wow! and that we were all so doggone tired.Nobody wanted count nothing. That’s incredible. So we only have one choice. we’ve a Pizza of the Day.
Today, we’re doing one among ourclassic tomato pizzas. therefore the key thing about the CheeseBoard, it as started 50 years ago. Elizabeth and Sahag Avedisian decided they were getting to open upa little cheese store up there. and therefore the customers looked over thecounter and said, “Share with us.” we would like a number of that.That looks good. They were politically activeand socially conscious. I even have to admit.- I hope they do not get mad. – Can we come through?- Oh, yeah. Alright. So is that how’s the pizza start?On the flat top then get pack up. What’s up guys?How are you? And we’ll sell hundredsof those pizzas.
We close and decideeverything from the way to operate our business to what kind ofbenefits should workers have which is extremely empowering. and the way does one like working in asystem where the workers also are, you know, owners? I desire that’s how all jobestablishments should be ran. I mean where everybody features a voice. what percentage years have youguys been here? Thirty-eight? Why is that embarrassing?That’s amazing! -Thirty-eight-years.-That’s incredible! He started when he was five. Steve’s getting me the pizza.
Alright Frank. Stop with the talk. let’s examine if there’s anythingto all this, right here. this is often the truth, right there. that is the realityand it’s amazing. Every order gets one or twoslivers thereon. So it’s just a touch thanks to make upfor alittle slice. -Dip it right in. Pour it on top.-Whatever works. you’ll taste the flavorof all that produce. There’s great onions and tomatoes. Of course, the Papi Chulosauce on top. Just an excellent slice of pizza. you recognize what we’re doing tomorrow? A peach pizza. Cheese Board has influenceda lot of bakeries and pizzerias within the Bay area,including The Mill. Here at The Mill, they are not onlybaking incredible bread, they’re also millingtheir own flour. And another bonus, every nightis pizza night. Most of our bread isall whole grain. – Okay.- Yeah. So we’re all an entire grainsourdough bread bakery. and every one our whole grain flourwe mill here fresh within the bakery on our stone mill. this is often the brains here. – this is often the pizza brains right here?- this is often Jess. in the week we’ve nori in ourmostly whole grain crust. Really grilled tomatoes, ginger,mozzarella, provolone, togarashi. very nice and savory.
It’s specialized flavor to itfrom that nori, I think. And it also just taste healthy. It’s just like the quite pizza you canrun a marathon on, you know? The West Coast is all aboutinventive toppings. Out here you’ll even find tandoorichicken on your pizza. Zante is an Indian restaurantand pizzeria within the Mission. Meet Tony. Zante’s owner and theGodfather of Indian Pizza. at some point i used to be trying to makea pizza for the staff. Yeah, yeah. So everybody liked it so I said,”Let’s put it on the menu.” I even have four differentkind of pizzas. Masala sauce, spinach sauce,potato masala, chicken masala. Are there any otherIndian style pizzerias? One here in San Francisco.This guy who wont to work on behalf of me. He copied me. That’s a sort of flattery, you know? But I’m the Godfather. The Godfather of Indian Pizza. The pizza was born here. No kidding? this is often the house ofthe Indian pizza. So this dough features a little bitof a yellow color thereto. I make my very own dough.This has turmeric, some spice… i do not want to inform you. That’s alright. you do not have totell me of these secrets. It’s okay.
This is often actually naan bread. – No kidding.- Yeah Naan has no spice but,the flour is naan. Got you, got you. -What’s up buddy? How are you?-I’m good. Frank. -Talwinder.-Talwinder, nice to satisfy you. I’m getting to make a half and half. Half and Half. half the spinach sauce. Okay. the opposite half is masala sauce. Yes. That’s called mozzarella cheese. and that is regular mozzarellacheese? That’s regular mozzarella. But you are doing the vegetables,he does the meat? Where’s the eggplant, the eggplant? Fresh garlic. tons of garlic. Beautiful, beautiful. tons of cilantro. Nice and hot.There you go. Does he teach youhow to form pizza? So you learn from the Godfather? Yeah, the Godfather. Grandfather.
The pizza crust hereis tons like naan. Tony showed me the method of makingthe traditional Indian flat bread. you’ve got to possess hot hands.You have to possess good hands. a bit like making pizza? It’s experience, you know? -And you get wont to it.-Right Alright, should we make sure pizza,make sure it’s alright? Let’s go, pizza.Burning now! Oh, it’s out. It’s okay. -You got it?-Yeah, he got it. Smell good? It smells great. Why don’t you’ve got it insideand eat here? -I would like to do this.-Yeah, please have a seat. -Let me skills it tastes.-I’ll allow you to know. we’ve tamarind saucethat we make here. and that is just condiment. It’s delicious. So good. it isn’t too spicy, butit has all those great India flavors. it’s freshness from these twosauces that you simply just placed on top. You know, I could tastethe cauliflower. I could taste the chicken. I can kindof taste everything individually.
Ginger, garlic? Ginger then those herbs too.Give another nice flavor. That was within the dough. That’s within the dough. It’s really delicious. I’m the Godfather. you’re the Godfather, indeed. you bought to possess good hands. it isn’t all Papi Chulo sauceand tandoori chicken in SF. you’ll also find a number of the bestNeapolitan pizzas within the country. -Hey, how you doing?-What’s going on? -Nice to ascertain you.-Thanks for having me, man. Sure, welcome. -Thank you, thank you.-How you been? -I’ve been great. i have been great.-Yeah! Come on in. Wow. It seems like a churchalmost in here.
You know? Anthony Mangieri may be a pizza legend. i have been following his careerfrom the start. and i am super excited to spendsome time with him. I never make the pizzathe same way. Today, I made it with some flourthat I’ve never utilized in my life. it isn’t whole wheat, but there’sdefinitely germ and bran in it. -It absorbs water better.-Right. there is no yeast during this pizza so. It’s weird. i prefer a light-weight pizza,but i would like it to be naturally leaven. So it is a weird thing thatI’m trying to find that I basically get rarely. that appears beautiful. And you’re after a really specificstyle, is that right? i assume so. I mean, i do not reallycare about labels, honestly.
Within the sense, I mean I started outwith that as my inspiration, but it had been wiped out an innocent kindof how, almost from a distance. nobody really showed me. There wasnobody doing it within the US. it had been a bit like myweird interpretation coming from New Jersey being likethis is what Neapolitan pizza was like sort of a hundred years ago. it’s Neapolitan, but whatever. It’s my very own weird little place. your home in ny that youclosed is known, still. You know, people mention itall the time. i used to be always hooked in to that.
I was like, this guy is that the man. You now what I mean? He’s doing shithis way and that is it. i feel I opened inNew York in 2004. I had already felt likeI knew what i used to be doing. it isn’t like once I opened there,I was like, “this is my first place.” People probably thought thatbecause we ran it so half-ass. And had such terrible service,but that was all kind of my plan. Believe it or not. -Does it enter the refrigerator?-No. No, nothing. Yeah. I desire it changes thetexture of the dough. It’s never getting to be as delicate. This pizza at its bestis extremely delicate. When does one know that that dough isgoing to be the way that you simply love it? that you simply want specifically?Is it within the mixing process? Or is it once you get out thereand you begin cooking? you recognize, usually it’s when I’mshaping. Now, I quite know already.
I’m like, “Tonight’s goingto be a stress, or it might be quite fun.” And then, there’s still an opportunity that Imiscalculated, ’cause i’m going home and have lunch and And he’s like,”Looks alright.” and that i open, I’m like,”Oh my god, it’s no good!” Okay. Should we make a margherita? -Yeah, let’s roll in the hay.-Okay. One ladle of sauce? One ladle, yup. That’s my grandmother’s spoon. It’s amazing i have never lost it oranything of these years, you know? it is so awesome. then this isthe regular buffalo. And this is often the smoked buffalo. So we’re getting to useregular on the margherita.
I quite give just whateverI’m feeling therein moment. Coarse sea salt. -And, this goes all over?-Just sprinkle around. Yeah, even a touch biton the crust is good. then some basil.Generous. Yeah, whatever you wish. I mean, i do not think youcan put an excessive amount of. does one want to slip it on? Is that it?-That’s it, man.You add some oil. a touch little bit of vegetable oil on top. Like in counter clockwise. -That’s cool.-Beautiful. Since we’re doing one just put it all the way inthat back at 1 o’clock. -Yeah.-Beautiful. So I’ve never used shavings before.
What’s the advantage of getting these? you recognize, it is a super oldtechnique in Naples. And even once they wont to use thema lot, it had been only in Naples that you simply would see it. And now there they don’tdo it the maximum amount either. It gives an enormous boost to temperature. That’s enough of that. I might take it out. That’s it.It’s done. Not bad. you recognize it doesn’t look nearly as good as yours. -Do you would like to undertake it?-Of course. -Is it alright?-Dude, it’s… yeah. I mean the salt mixed with like, just of these great ingredients. It’s what pizza should taste like. Honestly, there could be one or twoduring the night when I’m like, “That’s good one.” then the remainder of the night. you are a true artist man.You’re super critical of yourself. No, no. i’m very hard on myself. Yo, in Italy, this is often how we roll in the hay.Fork and knife. And apparently, here in SanFrancisco also. This has been one among my favoritepizza experiences without a doubt. Anthony may be a very humble guy,but his knowledge of pizza and therefore the way that he goes about itis just on A level that’s so high. He’s very critical of himselfand the pizzas but, the pizzas just come outso pure then good.
I’m just happy tohave this experience, spend a while with him, and truly revisit thereand make a pizza with him. I’m heading to Mozzeriain the Mission. This is often one among the onlydeaf owned and operated restaurants within the country. Melody and Russ aren’t onlymaking amazing pizza, but also creating opportunitiesfor their staff, customers, and therefore the deaf community as an entire. There’s two things that I noticedwhen I walked within the door. favorite, was that beautifulStefano Ferrara oven. The second thing that I noticed wasthe Vera Pizzeria check in there. How long have you ever guysbeen within the pizza business? Amazing. watching your pizza,it looks like Italian pizza to me. Wow! So your familyhas a restaurant. And you were also ready to open yourdream restaurant here. That’s awesome. That’s amazing. So this is often where the magic happens? Yeah.
I bathe in it. you bought to possess thatcircular motion. Thank you! you recognize I owna pizzeria too, right? No, i would like to ascertain your style.I want to ascertain your style. Cheers! What does it mean to possess arestaurant like this and be ready to show the planet whatyou guys can do here as a pizzeria? Right. Absolutely. I’m always superimpressed by people that are champions of their community. And it seems that you simply guys reallytook it to the acute. you actually put your heart and soulinto making pizza. And that i just want to mention I thinkthat’s really great. and i am sure your communitythanks you for that. I even have one last stop inSan Francisco to form. Agostino, the owner,was expecting me ahead. Agostino. I”m Safdar Khan. Nice to satisfy you. A-G-O-S-T-I-N-O, okay?
I’m getting to talk for five minutes. I’m getting to tell you the story ofthe place from A to Z, okay? 3, 2, 1. Welcome to Tommaso’s Restaurant. This restaurant is 84 years old. one among the explanations thatthis may be a famous restaurant is due to the brick oven. The brick oven was inbuilt 1935. We use oak wood because it yieldsvery high heat and really low flames. round the restaurant,there are paintings on the walls. Those are on canvas.They are the originals. they’re the scenes of Naplescopied from postcards of the family brought from Naples within the ’30’s.
People Magazine in 1982, came outwith the simplest nine pizza places within the us and that we came inon number three. rather than stars, they gave ustomatoes. So we ended up with four tomatoesout of 5 tomatoes. then another interestingthing, we’ve a touch booth at the top of the restaurant. It’s got a symbol that says,”FamilyTable Reserved in the least Times.” it is the best table within the housebecause it’s closest to the kitchen and closest to the toilet. That’s it. Was it five minutes?! i feel so. many thanks such a lot. i can not wait to dig in. I took it to travel becausethere wasn’t much room. I’m close to enjoy it on the road. need to do the spinach side first,like Agostino said. It wouldn’t be a visit to the Baywithout a stop in wine country. And what’s better than pizza? Pizza and wine. We’re in Napa immediately.I’m close to see my boy, Ketan. He owned a beautifulwinery out here. this is often a wine that I makefrom a special vineyard. It’s called Monasio. He features a beautiful pizza oven builtinto the side of the mountain. We’re just getting to chill with somefriends, eat some pizza, drink some good wine. See what northern Californiais all about. This place is 45 acres. Immediately we’ve thissuper fence up because we just have quite finishedplanting this vineyard. We fenced the whole property in. But, we’re still ensuring that allthe deers are really out before we pull downthese temporary fences. And there is something special aboutjust being call at nature taking care of your shit, you know? that is what we’re built upon. We cleared all this land ourselves.I have an important equipment company. and that we develop vineyardsfor people. Then this ismy quite home property. this may start producing grapes inthe next two to 3 years. -It’s just a process.-A process. I’m trying to find the simplest way topossibly do something. Because I’m trying to find the bestthis ground has got to offer. what’s it about this community,your group of friends, the folks that are here in Napa? we do not have theinfrastructure to travel out. -Anything like what a city does.-Yeah. Just wine and food, and every one this stuff. If you’re keen on one,you obviously love the opposite. and that is how we allget together. -Nice to satisfy you.-Hi, I’m Sara. -Sara. Frank. Nice to satisfy you.-Nice to satisfy you. -Mel.-Nice to satisfy you, Mel. -How you doing? I’m Lee.-Frank. Pleasure to satisfy you. you are going to eatsome pizza, today? Yeah, you are. This whole oven may be a wholemonstrosity in its own sense but. It’s crazy, this thing. But it had been more a Tuscan dome.-Right. -And so we excavated the world out.-Okay. So it is a little bitdifferent of a shape, but it’s completely ofour own design. you’ll really feelthe heat though. This thing is generatinga lot of warmth. And for pizzas, I meanI’m sure they are available out great in here. All the homies are here.Everybody’s chilling.
We got the hearth burning.I can feel it from here. It’s nice and hot. Basically dinner time. we’ve some leeks. Amazing buffalo mozzarella. we’ve some tomatoes thatwere simply crushed up. Some zucchini flowers,some eggs. i do not know. We’re likely to geta little creative here, today. What did you doto make the dough? Classic Neapolitan style.Flour, water, yeast, salt. We’re watching like 62to like 65% water. So it is a nice wet dough. Here we go, wish me luck. The pizza seems like it’s kind ofrising and shooting up in there quick, which may be a good sign. you cannot fail with some reallygood tomatoes, some specialized dough, and a few really goodmozzarella cheese. Cheers. Thanks guys. Cheers. In San Francisco, you don’tneed to try to to much. the things that’s comingout of the bottom. the quantity of labor that thesefarmers are putting into these things. You know, you do not reallyhave to try to to much.
You stretch it out. you set somegood stuff thereon. You throw it in. And everyone’s happy. need to wash it downwith an honest can of wine too. Salute thereto. I never would have reallyimagined that my trip to Napa and this beautiful vineyard would find yourself with me givingthe winemaker a pizza tattoo. – Diamond Mountain?- Diamond Mountain. Fucking drill it in. this is often my first time ever givingsomebody a tattoo. You DM, baby! You’re definitely gonna regret this.